Luteal Phase Defect (or deficiency) (LPD):

A condition that occurs when the uterine lining does not develop adequately because of inadequate progesterone stimulation; or because of the inability of the uterine lining to respond to progesterone stimulation. LPD may prevent embryonic implantation or cause an early abortion.

More simply stated – LPD is a hormonal imbalance, effecting ovulatory function and uterine endometrial lining, which can increase a woman’s risk of both conception difficulties and early miscarriage.


Hyperprolactinemia is a common clinical problem. It is found in up to one-third of patients with absence of menstruation and in up to 90 percent of women.

Hyperprolactinemia is a condition in which excess prolactin circulates in the bloodstream of nonpregnant women. Hyperprolactinemia can produce a variety of reproductive dysfunctions including inadequate progesterone production during the luteal phase after ovulation, irregular ovulation and menstruation, absence of menstruation, and galactorrhea (breast milk production by a woman who is not nursing). Prolactin levels should be measured in women who experience these conditions. In men, hyperprolactinemia may be associated with impotence and can affect fertility.

Prolactin secretion may increase mildly with sleep, stress, coitus, exercise, nipple stimulation, ingestion of certain foods, and pregnancy. If a woman’s prolactin level is elevated the first time it is tested, a second sample should be checked when she is fasting and non-stressed. Confirmed elevations of prolactin need to be evaluated.


It is thought that type 1 diabetes associated with accelerated aging may contribute to premature ovarian failure. It is also thought that early menopause is a previously unknown complication of diabetes, rather than a result of existing diabetic complications.

Thyroid Disease

Research indicates that IVF failure also occurs in women who produce antithyroid antibodies to their thyroid glands, regardless of whether or not there are clinical symptoms or signs of reduced thyroid hormone activity (hypothyroidism). Many women, especially those who have a family history thyroid disease, will manifest these antibodies.

The presence of these antibodies is associated with a variety of manifestations of poor reproductive performance, says Dr. Geoffrey Sher, author of In Vitro Fertilization, The Art Of Making Babies. He goes on to say, These range from infertility, through early miscarriage to prematurity, intrauterine growth retardation, other serious complications of late pregnancy, and even fetal death.” These complications he said, often occur when there is no clinical suggestion of hypothyroidism.


If you have Lupus, it is important that you have the best information from a rheumatologist and obstetrician (preferably a team), who familiar with high-risk pregnancies. Most lupus patients can have successful pregnancies, and normal babies. However, it’s important to be aware of the times when lupus can increase the risks.

Even under the best of circumstances. In SLE (Systemic Lupus Erythematosus), certain conditions can affect fertility.

If you have lupus, the body minimizes your ability to take on new work, for example, the work of getting pregnant. This means you may have irregular periods, or none at all. Although it is possible to ovulate without having a period, it is much less common. Avoid conceiving until the disease has settled down for a few months.

Scarring in the pelvic region.

Childbirth may put you at risk for a bacterial infection, causing PID. The bacteria can enter your pelvic region through the dilated cervix.


This can affect ovulation. After having one child, a couple’s “workload” and exhaustion level can increase enormously.

Strenuous exercise and weight loss.

Many women will overdo it in the gym in a mad scramble to reclaim their figures after childbirth. This can affect ovulation. Whatever the cause, couples with secondary infertility will need to consider the same options as couples dealing with primary infertility.”

Other Causes of Infertility