ICSI stands for Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection. This refers to a procedure in which a single sperm is directly injected into each egg. It is used as part of in vitro fertilization.
ICSI is most often used when the make partner has a low sperm count, low sperm motility or sperm of poor quality. If the male partner does not produce any sperm at all, this would obviously not be possible. If necessary the physician may use other procedures to procure the sperm. These could include Microsurgical Epididymal Sperm Aspiration (MESA), Percutaneous Epididymal Sperm Aspiration (PESA), or Testicular Sperm Extraction (TESE). These procedures allow the physician to extract the sperm directly from a man’s epididymis or testicle.
The use of ICSI and these sperm extraction techniques has greatly improved the ability of Reproductive Endocrinologists to treat male factor infertility.